4. A divided nation conquered  by  foreigners
Vientiane and Champassak kingdoms were conquered by Siam.   Luang
Prabang was took weak and was unable to fight against the Siam for the reunification of the country. When the French came and established a colony in Indochina, Luang Prabang kingdom asked for French protection in 1893. Facing with the French threat, the Siam withdrew from the kingdoms of Vientiane and Champassak. Then all of three Kingdoms Luang Prabang, Vientiane and Champassak were placed under the oppression of the French protectorate. The Lao heroic people continued to fight against the French. Like the rest of Southeast Asia, the country was shortly occupied by the Japanese during the World War II. The French came back after the Japanese defeat and they were faced with the Lao people’s resistance.

In 1945, the Lao people proclaimed its independence from France. Some years later, this proclamation of independence was recognized by the United Nations. The end of the French colonial rule did not bring peace to the Lao people. The US bombing campaign over the portion of the Hochiminh trail crossing the Lao PDR during the “ Vietnam War ” obliged the Lao patriotic people to fight against the US and their local followers to protect the Lao Independence.
5. A heavily U.S bombing campaign against the Lao people
The Lao territory was heavily bombed by the US air force during the Indochina War (Vietnam War) and received more than two million tons of bombs including the cluster bombs or bombies.
Today the International teams are still cleaning the terrain of unexploded ordinances (UXO) particularly in the region of the province of Houaphan and Xiengkhuang and the Lao people continue to suffer from the consequences of this bombing campaign.

6. The rebirth of a nation
The end of the Indochina War (Vietnam War) in 1975 has conducted to the founding of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). December 2nd 1975 marked the complete victory of the Lao people in their struggle against the external aggression and a rebirth of the Lao unified nation.
Today the Lao people are enjoying peace, stability and freedom.

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